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For most Parisians the distinguishing feature of the Faubourg Saint-Antoine is the presence of vast courtyards bordered by long facades with regular, close openings.- Photo : © IAU îdF

France enjoys a wealth of park and garden heritage which is nevertheless under threat. This heritage is highly valuable for several reasons: aesthetic, cultural, urbanistic, botanical, historical.- Photo : Above, the park at La Courneuve (Seine-Saint-Denis, 93) which is the largest public park project in the Ile-de-France area since the Second Empire. © IAU îdF

One resource common to almost all sites is tourism. The more prestigious the site, the more tourism there is.- Photo : Above, the Fontainebleau forest. © IAU îdF

PNRs (Regional Natural Parks) provide many solutions to heritage preservation which are often innovative, always respect the environment and can be adapted to other local areas.- Photo : Above, the Haute Vallée de Chevreuse © IAU îdF

Heritage, volume 2. Cahiers n° 130

March 2001

The State has played a key role in the protection, restoration, management of heritage

The Ile-de-France area is rich in both natural and architectural heritage. The locality enjoys a wealth of features both in the form of monuments and sites, recorded and preserved very early on thanks to an appreciation of their value although, at times, necessity has meant reconciling conflicting forces of change. The State has played a key role in this area. For over forty years it has invested in the protection, restoration, management of heritage which belongs to the nation as a whole. The combined pressures of the legislator, local managers and public opinion have resulted in significant changes in the very concept of heritage itself and its management policy over time. Today, the new school heritage management involves a dynamic, local approach which takes a whole range of issues into consideration. The very meaning of the term heritage has considerably broadened from a narrow definition involving historical monuments to encompass natural environments and the protection of fauna and flora in the name of biodiversity. The trend has also shifted from conservation to management, effective presentation and sustained preservation.

Heritage is all about common recognition on a local, regional, national and European level

Heritage has also become an economic, social and cultural issue whose future is no longer solely the remit of government authorities, associations and private individuals but an essential part of any decision-maker’s development strategy. Finally, and, above all, heritage is all about common recognition on a local, regional, national and European level. It is both a factor and vehicle of our identity. This phenomenon is even more marked in the Ile-de-France area whose citizens have manifested a strong desire to see their heritage not only recognised but, above all, treated with respect.

The second volume features concrete examples which illustrate the changing, diverse nature of our heritage comprising fine architectural examples and ordinary buildings, lively districts or fragile natural spaces, landscapes, impregnated, with culture as well as all those who on a daily basis work to record, manage and bring the heritage in the Ile-de-France area to life for us and our children.

Others studies in the same domain :



Law of April 21st 1906 First law on the protection of natural sites and monuments of aesthetic interest.Law of December 31st 1913 superseding the law of 1887 and incorporating the register of listed monuments from the latter. Regularly supplemented, it nevertheless remains the framework law and is still in application. It sets out the definition and status of historic monuments, a term which includes both buildings and furniture. Protection applies on the basis of two main criteria –historic and aesthetic value. It instituted the notion of restricting of property rights in the public interest.Decree of March 18th 1924 pertaining to the organisation of protection procedures prescribed by the law of 1913.Law of July 23rd 1927 An extension of the law of 1913 via the institution of Inscription sur l’inventaire supplémentaire –ISMH– which involved registering buildings of “sufficient historic or aesthetic interest to warrant their preservation” on the Supplementary inventory. The law therefore prescribes two levels of protection: listing for monuments of major public interest and historical protection for monuments of sufficient interest.

Law of May 2nd 1930 modelled on the law of 1913, outlining the concept of “protected natural site”, guaranteeing protection for sites as well as monuments. As far as monuments are concerned protection is provided either in the form of listing or protection.Law of September 27th 1941 prescribing site operating conditions for archaeological digs and the conservation of any artefacts or monuments found therein.Law of August 4th 1962 known as the “Loi Malraux” instituting the concept of conservation areas for areas “of sufficient historic, aesthetic interest or such to warrant the conservation, restoration and preservation of all or part of a group of buildings”. It contains specific planning procedures designed to protect the latter. Law ushers in a new view of heritage and also creates the Inventaire général du patrimoine (Heritage Register) directed by André Chastel.May 1964 Adoption of the Venice Charter during the the IInd International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historic Monuments extending the concept of historical monuments to cover works of a modest nature in addition to large scale projects. It allocated priority to the regular maintenance and allocation of buildings for restoration.Decree no. 67-458 of March 1st 1967 on PNRs (Regional Natural Parks). It prescribes the qualifying criteria for creating PNRs as “the quality of their natural and cultural heritage” thereby raising the profile of vernacular heritage.Law of January 3rd 1977 recognizing that building by virtue of their impact are of interest to the community as well as the owner, institutes the CAUEs (Architecture, Planning and Environmental Protection Councils) attached to the conseils généraux (general councils).Law of January 7th 1983 on the division of tasks between local, departmental, regional and state authorities. In section II, Chapter 6 entitled “the preservation of heritage and sites” (articles 69 to 72), the law institutes the creation of ZPPAUs (Urban Architectural Heritage Preservation Areas) “in the vicinity of historical monuments and in the districts and sites to be protected or conserved for aesthetic or historical reasons”.Decree no. 88-443 of April 25th 1988 First Article of the decree “At the initiative of the regional authorities, areas of fragile balance and rich natural and cultural heritage can be listed as PNRs (Regional Natural Parks). European Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage of January 16th 1992 prescribing that States should intervene to “protect archaeological heritage as a source of collective memory and as an instrument for historical and scientific study”.Law of January 8th 1993 on the protection and conservation of the countryside. Broadening of the concept of the ZPPAUs to cover natural heritage (ZPPAUPs).Law of july 2nd 1996 instituting the Foundation du patrimoine (Heritage Foundation) designed to “promote knowledge, conservation and the preservation of national heritage”. Its main objective is the recording and the protection of what it refers to as petit patrimoine (local features) i.e. features which are in principle not protected.Law of 28th 1997 instituting the Commissions régionales du patrimoine et des sites (Regional Heritage & Sites Commissions) to replace the CORIPHAEs. This commission comprises thirty members: seven government authority representatives, eight elected members, eight qualified distinguished people, three representatives from a range of associations and professionals. It acts as an advisory board on nominations for the listing of historical monuments or their inclusion on the Supplementary Inventory, as well as the assignment of ZPPAUPs status.Law of December 13th 2000 known as Loi SRU reinforces heritage protection by prescribing tis inclusion as an objective is a range of town planning documents (article 1-11, paragraph 3). It reforms the 500-metre zones which can now be altered in order to preserve monument sites. the concept of visibility is no longer mentioned.